Input Service Distributor (ISD) is a system established under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) framework. It allows a company to distribute the input tax credit (ITC) it receives on inputs or input services to its various branches or units that are registered under the same Permanent Account Number (PAN).

The company’s main office or headquarters becomes responsible for distributing the tax credit to its branches by registering as an ISD. This helps streamline the credits flow, ensuring compliance with GST regulations and optimising tax planning efforts. The ISD system also simplifies accounting and tax compliance by centralising the distribution of tax credits. This article explains ISD in detail and its implications for businesses.

Why ISD is Important?

The Input Service Distributor (ISD) holds significance under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) system for several reasons:

  • Smooth credit flow:

Companies can claim tax credits on inputs or input services used for business purposes. But if a company has multiple branches, it can be challenging to consume all of the ITC and also equally challenging to distribute the tax credit among them. ISD helps by ensuring a fair tax credit distribution across all branches, enabling a smooth credit flow.

  • Centralized control and management: 

ISD provides a centralized system for distributing tax credit across multiple branches. This improves control and administration of tax credit, avoids improper distribution, and ensures GST compliance.

  • Reduced tax burden: 

ISD allows one branch to use the tax credit obtained by another branch of the same company. This can significantly reduce the overall tax burden and help optimize tax planning efforts. By redistributing ITC among branches, companies can achieve better tax optimization and maximize cost savings.

  • Increased efficiency and cost savings: 

ISD allows companies to distribute tax credit for common expenses like rent, energy, and maintenance across all branches. This reduces tax liability and simplifies accounting and tax compliance.

  • GST law compliance:

ISD ensures compliance with GST regulations by enabling the fair and equal distribution of ITC across all branches or units of a company. It ensures that ITC is allocated in adherence to the prescribed documentation and other legal requirements. Companies can avoid penalties, disputes, or non-compliance issues by following the proper procedures and maintaining compliance.

Examples of ISD Benefits in Practice

Understanding ISD benefits with a practical example is easier as it provides a good operational overview of the mechanism. Following are two good examples for your understanding:

Hospitality Industry:

A hotel chain with multiple locations can register its headquarters as an ISD. The central office incurs costs for services like Consultancy, legal advisory and so on that benefit all locations. The ISD can transfer the tax credit on these services to the branches, ensuring a fair distribution of the tax burden and cost optimization.

Manufacturing/Retail Sector:

A company in the manufacturing or retail sector can register as an ISD and obtain tax credit on centrally acquired services like logistics and storage. The ISD can then transfer the tax credit to individual production units or retail stores, simplifying tax credit utilization and ensuring effective distribution across the organization.

Challenges in Claiming ISD Benefits

While there are several advantages to utilizing the Input Service Distributor (ISD) mechanism under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) system, taxpayers often face certain challenges when claiming ISD benefits. Let’s delve into these obstacles and explore relevant case laws associated with each challenge:

ITC Eligibility:

One of the primary hurdles companies encounter in obtaining ISD benefits is the eligibility for Input Tax Credit (ITC). According to GST regulations, an ISD can only distribute ITC based on invoices or other approved documentation. These documents must include the ISD’s name, address, and GSTIN, as well as the recipient’s name, address, and GSTIN. Moreover, ITC can only be disbursed for inputs or services the receiving unit utilizes for business purposes. However, there have been instances where the eligibility of ITC has been questioned.

Legal Precedent: In the case of M/s. Walmart India Private Limited, the Appellate Authority for Advance Ruling (AAAR), ruled that an ISD can provide ITC only for inputs or input services the receiving unit uses for business purposes. The AAAR further stated that the receiving unit must demonstrate that the inputs or input services were received and utilized for commercial objectives.

Reversal of ITC:

Another challenge taxpayers face when attempting to benefit from ISD under GST is the reversal of ITC. As per GST rules, if the recipient unit does not use the inputs or input services for business operations, the ISD must reverse the ITC allocated to that unit. This creates difficulties for businesses in effectively managing their ITC since they would need to continually monitor the utilization of inputs or input services by recipient units.

Legal Precedent: In the case of M/s. Columbia Asia Hospitals Private Limited, the Karnataka Authority for Advance Ruling (AAR) determined that if the recipient unit does not utilize the inputs or input services for business purposes, the ISD must reverse the ITC distributed to that unit. The AAR further stated that the receiving unit must demonstrate that the inputs or services were utilized commercially.


Proper documentation poses another barrier for companies claiming ISD benefits under GST. The invoices or other papers used by an ISD to distribute ITC should include the ISD’s name, address, GSTIN, and the recipient unit’s details. These documents should also provide information about the inputs or services the ISD received and distributed. Any inaccuracies or omissions in the paperwork may lead to the rejection of ITC claims.

Legal Precedent: In the instance of M/s. Kansai Nerolac Paints Limited, the AAR ruled that invoices or other documents used for ITC distribution by an ISD must include the ISD’s name, address, GSTIN, and the recipient unit’s details. The AAR further emphasized that any errors or omissions in the paperwork could result in the rejection of ITC claims.

One of the key obstacles in ISD is accurately attributing input services to the appropriate units or branches within a company. Maintaining proper records and documentation is crucial to ensure compliance with GST regulations. Any discrepancies or errors in records can lead to disputes, penalties, or rejection of ITC claims. Taxpayers must invest in robust systems for monitoring and controlling input services to ensure accurate distribution of tax credits.

In summary, while ISD offers significant advantages in the GST framework, such as efficient ITC utilization and streamlined supply chain operations, its successful implementation requires a deep understanding of the legal and administrative aspects. Taxpayers should invest in advanced systems, maintain accurate records, and strictly adhere to compliance rules. By doing so, they can optimize their ITC utilization, simplify their processes, and contribute to developing a transparent and efficient tax environment.

In the 50th Council meeting, it is decided that the ISD route for distribution of Third Party service ITC will be made mandatory, GST law would be amended for the same. Further details are awaited on the same.